Testing Methods

1.White Box
White box testing is also called ‘Structural Testing / Glass Box Testing’ is used for testing the code keeping the system specs in mind. Inner working is considered and thus Developers Test.

  • Mutation Testing-Number of mutants of the same program created with minor changes and none of their result should coincide with that of the result of the original program given same test case.
  • Basic Path Testing-Testing is done based on Flow graph notation, uses Cyclops metric complexity & Graph matrices.
  • Control Structure Testing-The Flow of control execution path is considered for testing. It does also checks :-
    • Conditional Testing : Branch Testing, Domain Testing
    • Data Flow Testing
    • Loop testing: Simple, Nested, Conditional, Unstructured Loops

2. Gray Box
Similar to Black box but the test cases, risk assessments, and test methods involved in gray box testing are developed based on the knowledge of the internal data and flow structures
3. Black Box
Also called ‘Functional Testing’ as it concentrates on testing of the functionality rather than the internal details of code.
Test cases are designed based on the task descriptions

  • Comparison Testing-Test cases results are compared with the results of the test Oracle.
  • Graph Based Testing-Cause and effect graphs are generated and cyclometric complexity considered in using the test cases.
  • Boundary Value Testing-Boundary values of the Equivalence classes are considered and tested as they generally fail in Equivalence class testing.
  • Equivalence class Testing-Test inputs are classified into Equivalence classes such that one input check validates all the input values in that class.

Different Types of Testing

Performance testing
a. Performance testing is designed to test run time performance of software within the context of an integrated system. It is not until all systems elements are fully integrated and certified as free of defects the true performance of a system can be ascertained
b. Performance tests are often coupled with stress testing and often require both hardware and software infrastructure. That is, it is necessary to measure resource utilization in an exacting fashion. External instrumentation can monitor intervals, log events. By instrument the system, the tester can uncover situations that lead to degradations and possible system failure
Security testing
If your site requires firewalls, encryption, user authentication, financial transactions, or access to databases with sensitive data, you may need to test these and also test your site’s overall protection against unauthorized internal or external access
Exploratory Testing
Often taken to mean a creative, internal software test that is not based on formal test plans or test cases; testers may be learning the software as they test it
Benefits Realization tests
With the increased focus on the value of Business returns obtained from investments in information technology, this type of test or analysis is becoming more critical. The benefits realization test is a test or analysis conducted after an application is moved into production in order to determine whether the application is likely to deliver the original projected benefits. The analysis is usually conducted by the business user or client group who requested the project and results are reported back to executive management
Mutation Testing
Mutation testing is a method for determining if a set of test data or test cases is useful, by deliberately introducing various code changes (‘bugs’) and retesting with the original test data/cases to determine if the ‘bugs’ are detected. Proper implementation requires large computational resources
Sanity testing: Typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort. For example, if the new software is crashing systems every 5 minutes, bogging down systems to a crawl, or destroying databases, the software may not be in a ‘sane’ enough condition to warrant further testing in its current state
Sanity testing
Typically an initial testing effort to determine if a new software version is performing well enough to accept it for a major testing effort, For example, if the new software is crashing systems every 5 minutes, bogging down systems to a crawl, or destroying databases, the software may not be in a ‘sane’ enough condition to warrant further testing in its current state
Build Acceptance Tests
Build Acceptance Tests should take less than 2-3 hours to complete (15 minutes is typical). These test cases simply ensure that the application can be built and installed successfully. Other related test cases ensure that Testing received the proper Development Release Document plus other build related information (drop point, etc.). The objective is to determine if further testing is possible. If any Level 1 test case fails, the build is returned to developers un-tested
Smoke Tests
Smoke Tests should be automated and take less than 2-3 hours (20 minutes is typical). These tests cases verify the major functionality a high level. The objective is to determine if further testing is possible. These test cases should emphasize breadth more than depth. All components should be touched, and every major feature should be tested briefly by the Smoke Test. If any Level 2 test case fails, the build is returned to developers un-tested
Bug Regression Testing
Every bug that was “Open” during the previous build, but marked as “Fixed, Needs Re-Testing” for the current build under test, will need to be regressed, or re-tested. Once the smoke test is completed, all resolved bugs need to be regressed. It should take between 5 minutes to 1 hour to regress most bugs
Database Testing
Database testing done manually in real time, it check the data flow between front end back ends. Observing that operations, which are operated on front-end is effected on back-end or not.
The approach is as follows:
While adding a record there’ front-end check back-end that addition of record is effected or not. So same for delete, update, Some other database testing checking for mandatory fields, checking for constraints and rules applied on the table , some time check the procedure using SQL Query analyzer
Functional Testing (or) Business functional testing
All the functions in the applications should be tested against the requirements document to ensure that the product conforms with what was specified.(They meet functional requirements)Verifies the crucial business functions are working in the application. Business functions are generally defined in the requirements Document. Each business function has certain rules, which can’t be broken. Whether they applied to the user interface behavior or data behind the applications. Both levels need to be verified. Business functions may span several windows (or) several menu options, so simply testing that all windows and menus can be used is not enough to verify the business functions. You must verify the business functions as discrete units of your testing
* Study SRS
* Identify Unit Functions
* For each unit function
* Take each input function
* Identify Equivalence class
* Form Test cases
* Form Test cases for boundary values
* From Test cases for Error Guessing
* Form Unit function v/s Test cases, Cross Reference Matrix
User Interface Testing (or) structural testing
It verifies whether all the objects of user interface design specifications are met. It examines the spelling of button test, window title test and label test. Checks for the consistency or duplication of accelerator key letters and examines the positions and alignments of window objects
Volume Testing
Testing the applications with voluminous amount of data and see whether the application produces the anticipated results (Boundary value analysis)
Stress Testing
Testing the applications response when there is a scarcity for system resources
Load Testing
It verifies the performance of the server under stress of many clients requesting data at the same time
Installation testing
The tester should install the systems to determine whether installation process is viable or not based on the installation guide
Configuration Testing
The system should be tested to determine it works correctly with appropriate software and hardware configurations
Compatibility Testing
The system should be tested to determine whether it is compatible with other systems (applications) that it needs to interface with
Documentation Testing
It is performed to verify the accuracy and completeness of user documentation
1. This testing is done to verify whether the documented functionality matches the software functionality
2. The documentation is easy to follow, comprehensive and well edited
If the application under test has context sensitive help, it must be verified as part of documentation testing
Recovery/Error Testing
Testing how well a system recovers from crashes, hardware failures, or other catastrophic problems
Comparison Testing
Testing that compares software weaknesses and strengths to competing products
Acceptance Testing
Acceptance testing, which black box is testing, will give the client the opportunity to verify the system functionality and usability prior to the system being moved to production. The acceptance test will be the responsibility of the client; however, it will be conducted with full support from the project team. The Test Team will work with the client to develop the acceptance criteria
Alpha Testing
Testing of an application when development is nearing completion, Minor design changes may still be made as a result of such testing. Alpha Testing is typically performed by end-users or others, not by programmers or testers
Beta Testing
Testing when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs, problems need to be found before the final release. Beta Testing is typically done by end-users or others, not by programmers or testers
Regression Testing
The objective of regression testing is to ensure software remains intact. A baseline set of data and scripts will be maintained and executed to verify changes introduced during the release have not “undone” any previous code. Expected results from the baseline are compared to results of the software being regression tested. All discrepancies will be highlighted and accounted for, before testing proceeds to the next level
Incremental Integration Testing
Continuous testing of an application as new functionality is recommended. This may require various aspects of an application’s functionality be independent enough to work separately before all parts of the program are completed, or that test drivers are developed as needed. This type of testing may be performed by programmers or by testers
Usability Testing
Testing for ‘user-friendliness’ clearly this is subjective and will depend on the targeted end-user or customer. User interviews, surveys, video recording of user sessions, and other techniques can be used. Programmers and testers are usually not appropriate as usability testers
Integration Testing
Upon completion of unit testing, integration testing, which is black box testing, will begin. The purpose is to ensure distinct components of the application still work in accordance to customer requirements. Test sets will be developed with the express purpose of exercising the interfaces between the components. This activity is to be carried out by the Test Team. Integration test will be termed complete when actual results and expected results are either in line or differences are explainable/acceptable based on client input
System Testing
Upon completion of integration testing, the Test Team will begin system testing. During system testing, which is a black box test, the complete system is configured in a controlled environment to validate its accuracy and completeness in performing the functions as designed. The system test will simulate production in that it will occur in the “production-like” test environment and test all of the functions of the system that will be required in production. The Test Team will complete the system test. Prior to the system test, the unit and integration test results will be reviewed by SQA to ensure all problems have been resolved. It is important for higher level testing efforts to understand unresolved problems from the lower testing levels. System testing is deemed complete when actual results and expected results are either in line or differences are explainable/acceptable based on client input
Parallel/Audit Testing
Testing where the user reconciles the output of the new system to the output of the current system to verify the new

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